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Magog is the second of the seven sons of Japheth mentioned in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10.

The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. Genesis 10:2

His descent from ADAM:


"The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras." Genesis 10:2. (S5).

"The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras." Chronicles 1:5. (S5).

"And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: 'Son of man, set thy face toward Gog, of the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him, and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal; and I will turn thee about, and put hooks into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed most gorgeously, a great company with buckler and shield, all of them handling swords: Persia, Cush, and Put with them, all of them with shield and helmet; Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah in the uttermost parts of the north, and all his bands; even many peoples with thee." Ezekiel 38:1-6. (S5).

"And I will send a fire on Magog, and on them that dwell safely in the isles; and they shall know that I am the LORD." Ezekiel 39:6. (S5).

"And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog, and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea." Revelation 20:8. (S5).

"And the sons of Magog were Elichanaf and Lubal." Jasher 7:4. (S4).

Magogites was a nation of people identified as the Scythians or Tartars by the Greeks later on. Other tribes such as the Slavs, the Mongols, the Finns, the Hungarians or the Magyars, and the Pamiris are said to have come from him. All the Goths, including the Swedes, declared that they, too, descended from the Magogites. Irish Celts also claimed that they are the descendants of Japheth through Magog although others suggest they are descendants of Gomer. (S3).

In the succeeding history about the Ashchenaz, the people closely recognized as the ancestors of the Scythians, it stated that the Magogites were just a portion of the Scythian nation who also mixed with the Ashchenaz tribe. (S3).

The Chronicon Pictum, also referred to as Chronica Hungarorum, is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Hungary from the fourteenth century. This work cites Hungarian legends that says the Huns, as well as the Magyars, are descended from twin brothers named Hunor and Magor respectively, who lived by the sea of Azov in the years after the flood. It equates Magor with Magog, the son of Japheth. (S1).

The original homeland of the descendants of Magor, the Magyars, is said to be south and east of the Ural mountains and north of the Caucusus Mountain range. Greater Hungaria is a term used by modern authors to refer to this territory where the ancestors of the Magyars used to live. (S1).

Josephus identified the offspring of Magog as the Scythians, a name used in antiquity for peoples north of the Black Sea. According to him, the Greeks called Scythia Magogia (Ant., bk. I, 6). (S1).

The ancient Magyars were separated into two groups. One of them stayed in Greater Hungaria. The other group, the ancestors of the modern Hungarians, moved south and west. (S1).

About the fourth and 5th centuries AD, the Magyars began moving west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria (Bashkortostan) and Perm Krai. (S1).

In the early 8th century, some of the Magyars moved to an area between the Volga, Don and the Seversky Donets Rivers. Those Magyars who stayed in Bashkiria remained there until as late as 1241. (S1).

Returning to Hungarian legend, while out hunting, the brothers Hunor and Magor saw a miraculous white stag (sometimes described as golden). They pursued the animal, but it always stayed ahead of them, leading them westward into Levedia, where they married two princesses, daughters of Dula, King of the Alans. They thus founded the Huns and Hungarian people. (S1).

The Magyars around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, that is, the Bulgars (Proto-Bulgarians, Onogurs) and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. (S1).

When this second group moved westwards from this homeland is debated by historians, but they progressed west to Levedia and later to Etelköz. (S1).

Around 830, a civil war broke out in the Khazar khaganate. As a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Magyars and they moved to what the Magyars call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River, in modern Ukraine. Around 854, the Magyars faced an attack by the Pechenegs. According to other sources, the reason for the departure of the Magyars to Etelköz was these attacks of the Pechenegs. (S1).

The new neighbors of the Magyars were the Varangians and the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Magyars (already referred to as the Ungri) along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz to the Carpathian Basin–mostly against the Eastern Frankish Empire (Germany) and Great Moravia, but also against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria. (S1).

Their descendants, the modern Hungarians, were eventually pushed out of Etelköz and moved to the Carpathian Basin. Contemporary sources attest that the Hungarians crossed the Carpathian Mountains following a joint attack in 894 or 895 by the Pechenegs and Bulgarians against them. They first took control over the lowlands east of the river Danube and attacked and occupied Pannonia (the region to the west of the river) in 900. They exploited internal conflicts in Moravia and annihilated this state sometime between 902 and 906. (S1).

Tradition holds that the Magyars were organized in a confederacy of tribes called hétmagyar (lit. seven Hungarians). The tribes of the hétmagyar were; Jeno, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, and Tarján. (S1).

The term Hungarian is thought to be derived from the Bulgar-Turkic On-Ogur (meaning "ten" Ogurs), which was the name of the Utigur Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars, and prior to the arrival of Magyars. The Hungarians may have belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is quite possible they became its ethnic majority. (S1).

Under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin about 895 or 896 AD. At the same time, due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Magyars in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and then by their old enemies the Pechenegs. The Bulgarians won the decisive battle of Southern Buh. It is uncertain whether or not those conflicts were the cause of the Hungarian departure from Etelköz. (S1).

The Hungarians strengthened their control over the Carpathian Basin by defeating a Bavarian army in a battle fought at Brezalauspurc on July 4, 907. They launched a series of plundering raids between 899 and 955 and also targeted the Byzantine Empire between 943 and 971. However, they gradually settled in the Basin and established a Christian monarchy, the Kingdom of Hungary around 1000. (S1).

From the upper Tisza region of the Carpathian Basin, the Hungarians intensified their looting raids across continental Europe. In 900, they moved from the upper Tisza River across the Danube to Pannonia, which later became the core of the arising Hungarian state. At the time of the Hungarian migration, the land was inhabited only by a sparse population of Slavs. (S1).

Many of the Hungarians, however, remained to the north of the Carpathians after 895/896, as archaeological findings suggest (e.g. Polish Przemysl). They seem to have joined the other Hungarians in 900. There is also a consistent Hungarian population in Transylvania, the Székelys, comprise 40% of the Hungarians in Romania. The Székely people's origin, and in particular the time of their settlement in Transylvania, is a matter of historical controversy. (S1).

For a time, Hungary controlled more territory than medieval France, and the population of medieval Hungary was the third largest of any country in Europe. In 907, the Hungarians destroyed a Bavarian army in the Battle of Pressburg and laid the territories of present-day Germany, France and Italy open to Hungarian raids. These raids were fast and devastating. The Hungarians defeated Louis the Child's Imperial Army near Augsburg in 910. From 917 to 925, Hungarians raided through Basle, Alsace, Burgundy, Saxony, and Provence. (S1).

Hungarian expansion was finally checked at the Battle of Lechfeld (or Battle of Augsburg). Located south of Augsburg, the Lechfeld is the flood plain that lies along the Lech River. The Battle of Lechfeld on 10 August 955, was a decisive victory by Otto I the Great, King of the Germans. It was followed up by the Battle of Recknitz in October. (S1).

Although the battle at Lechfeld stopped the Hungarian raids against Western Europe, the raids on the Balkan Peninsula continued until 970. Hungarian settlement in the area was approved by the Pope when their leaders accepted Christianity, and Stephen I the Saint (Szent István) was crowned King of Hungary in 1001. The century between the Magyars' arrival from the eastern European plains and the consolidation of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1001 was dominated by pillaging campaigns across Europe, from Dania (Denmark) to the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal). (S1).

After the country's acceptance into Christian Europe under Stephen I, Hungary served as a bulwark against further invasions from the east and south, especially against the Turks. (S1).

Other Descendants of Magog

According Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried (19th century) Magog refers to the Mongols. He cites an Arab writer who refers to the Great Wall of China with the name 'Magog'. (S1).

Genetic evidence has linked early Magyars eastward as well, to the Ujghurs living in East-Eurasia around the town of Ürümqi (today in China). (S1).

According to several mediaeval Irish chronicles, most notably the Auraicept na n-Éces and Lebor Gabála Érenn, the Irish race are a composite including descendants of Japheth's son Magog from "Scythia". Baath (Boath)(Baoth), Jobhath, and Fathochta are the three sons of Magog. Fenius Farsaid, Partholón, Nemed, the Fir Bolg, the Tuatha de Danann, and the Milesians are among Magog's descendants. Magog was also supposed to have had a grandson called Heber, whose offspring spread throughout the Mediterranean. (S1).

Jordanes' Getica (551) mentions Magog as ancestor of the Goths, as does the Historia Brittonum, but Isidore of Seville (c. 635) asserts that this identification was popular "because of the similarity of the last syllable" (Etymologiae, IX, 89). (S1).

Johannes Magnus (1488–1544) stated that Magog migrated to Scandinavia (via Finland) 88 years after the flood, and that his five sons were Suenno (ancestor of the Swedes), Gethar (or Gog, ancestor of the Goths), Ubbo (who later ruled the Swedes and built Old Uppsala), Thor, and German.[4] Magnus' accounts became accepted at the Swedish court for a long time, and even caused the dynastic numerals of the Swedish monarchs to be renumbered accordingly. Queen Christina of Sweden reckoned herself as number 249 in a list of kings going back to Magog. Magnus also influenced several later historians such as Daniel Juslenius (1676–1752), who derived the roots of the Finns from Magog. (S1).

Gog and Magog

Gog and Magog are sometimes given as individuals, sometimes peoples, and sometimes geographic regions. As found in Ezekiel and in the Book of Revelation, they are equated with prophetic descriptions of conflicts said to occur near the end times. (S1).

The first mention of the two names occurs in the Book of Ezekiel, where Gog is the name of an individual and Magog the name of his land; in Genesis 10 Magog is a person and no Gog is mentioned, and in Revelation both Gog and Magog appear together as the hostile nations of the world. (S2).

Magog is said to have had seven sons. (S2,S3,S4).

  1. Elichanaf. (S4). Brother of Lubal, Ali and Chalaf . Half brother of Baath (Boath), Jobhath and Fathochta. (S5).
  2. Lubal. (S4).
  3. Ali. (S4).
  4. Chalaf. (S4).
  5. [see BAOTH]. (Baath) (Boath). [CHART A3], [CHART A40]. (S4). Father of Fénius Farsaid, King of the Scythians.
  6. Jobhath. (S4).
  7. Fathochta. (S4). Father of Partholón and Friamaint.
  8. Sven. Named as a son of Magog by Johannes Magnus (1488–1544), who said he was the ancestor of the Swedes. (S4).
  9. Gethar. Named as a son of Magog by Johannes Magnus (1488–1544), who said he was the ancestor of the Goths. (S4).