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HENRY II, King of England, and Eleanor of Acquitaine
HENRY II, King of England. Curtmantle. [CHART A1].
Born (5-S5, S6)(25-S4) MAR 1133 at Le Mans, Anjou, France; son of Geoffrey V, Plantagenet, and Matilda of England. He was christened at LeMans. He was brought up in Anjou.
Peter of Blois left a description of Henry II in 1177: ...the lord king has been red-haired so far, except that the coming of old age and gray hair has altered that color somewhat. His height is medium, so that neither does he appear great among the small, nor yet does he seem small among the great... curved legs, a horseman's shins, broad chest, and a boxer's arms all announce him as a man strong, agile and bold... he never sits, unless riding a horse or eating... In a single day, if necessary, he can run through four or five day-marches and, thus foiling the plots of his enemies, frequently mocks their plots with surprise sudden arrivals...Always are in his hands bow, sword, spear and arrow, unless he be in council or in books.
Another contemporary, Gerald of Wales, described him thus: A man of reddish, freckled complexion, with a large, round head, grey eyes that glowed fiercely and grew bloodshot in anger, a fiery countenance and a harsh, cracked voice. His neck was poked forward slightly from his shoulders, his chest was broad and square, his arms strong and powerful. His body was stocky, with a pronounced tendency toward fatness, due to nature rather than self-indulgence -- which he tempered with exercise.
He was called Curt Mantle because of the practical short cloaks he wore, and sometimes "The Lion of Justice", which had also applied to his grandfather Henry I.
He visited England in 1149 to help his mother in her disputed claim to the English throne, in the civil war in which his mother Matilda had fought unsuccessfully for the English crown.
Henry succeeded his father as Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy in 1151, thus prior to coming to the throne he already controlled Normandy and Anjou.
He married Eleanor of Aquitane  on 18 MAY (1152-S4)(1153) in the Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France.
In August 1152, Henry, previously occupied in fighting Eleanor's ex-husband Louis VII of France and his allies, rushed back to her, and they spent several months together. Around the end of November 1152 they parted: Henry went to spend some weeks with his mother and then sailed for England, arriving on 6 January 1153. Some historians believe that the couple's first child, William, Count of Poitiers, was born in 1153.
His marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine on 18 May 1152 added her holdings to his, including Touraine, Aquitaine, and Gascony. He thus effectively became more powerful than the king of France — with an empire (the Angevin Empire) that stretched from the Solway Firth almost to the Mediterranean and from the Somme to the Pyrenees. As king, he would make Ireland a part of his vast domain. He also maintained lively communication with the Emperor of Byzantium Manuel I Comnenus.
He acceded to the throne of England on 25 OCT 1154, succeeding his cousin Stephen as king of England. His official coronation was on 19 DEC 1154 at Westminster.
Coat of arms:
Henry II's coat of arms were gules a lion rampant or (red background with a golden lion on hind legs).
Following the disputed reign of King Stephen, Henry's reign saw efficient consolidation. Henry II has acquired a reputation as one of England's greatest medieval kings. During his reign he controlled at various times parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. He ranks as the first of the Plantagenet or Angevin Kings.
During Stephen's reign the barons had subverted the state of affairs to undermine the monarch's grip on the realm; Henry II saw it as his first task to reverse this shift in power. For example, Henry had castles which the barons had built without authorisation during Stephen's reign torn down, and scutage, a fee paid by vassals in lieu of military service, became by 1159 a central feature of the king's military system. Record keeping improved dramatically in order to streamline this taxation.
Henry II established courts in various parts of England, and first instituted the royal practice of granting magistrates the power to render legal decisions on a wide range of civil matters in the name of the Crown. His reign saw the production of the first written legal textbook, providing the basis of today's "Common Law".
By the Assize of Clarendon (1166), trial by jury became the norm. Since the Norman Conquest jury trials had been largely replaced by trial by ordeal and "wager of battel" (which English law did not abolish until 1819). Provision of justice and landed security was further toughened in 1176 with the Assize of Northampton, a build on the earlier agreements at Clarendon. This reform proved one of Henry's major contributions to the social history of England. As a consequence of the improvements in the legal system, the power of church courts waned. The church, not unnaturally, opposed this and found its most vehement spokesman in Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, formerly a close friend of Henry's and his Chancellor. Henry had appointed Becket to the archbishopric precisely because he wanted to avoid conflict.
In 1170, his eldest surviving son Henry was crowned as joint king. However, Henry the younger died before his father in 1183, and so is not usually considered in the list of monarchs.
The conflict with Becket effectively began with a dispute over whether the secular courts could try clergy who had committed a secular offence. Henry attempted to subdue Becket and his fellow churchmen by making them swear to obey the "customs of the realm", but controversy ensued over what constituted these customs, and the church proved reluctant to submit. Following a heated exchange at Henry's court, Becket left England in 1164 for France to solicit in person the support of Pope Alexander III, who was in exile in France due to dissention in the college of Cardinals, and of King Louis VII of France. Due to his own precarious position, Alexander remained neutral in the debate, although Becket remained in exile loosely under the protection of Louis and Pope Alexander until 1170. After a reconciliation between Henry and Thomas in Normandy in 1170, Becket returned to England. Becket again confronted Henry, this time over the coronation of Prince Henry (see below). The much-quoted, although probably apocryphal, words of Henry II echo down the centuries: "Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?" Although Henry's violent rants against Becket over the years were well documented, this time four of his knights took their king literally (as he may have intended for them to do, although he later denied it) and travelled immediately to England, where they assassinated Becket in Canterbury Cathedral on December 29, 1170.
As part of his penance for the death of Becket, Henry agreed to send money to the Crusader states in Palestine, which the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar would guard until Henry arrived to make use of it on pilgrimage or crusade. Henry delayed his crusade for many years and in the end never went at all, despite a visit to him by Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem in 1184 and being offered the crown of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1188 he levied the Saladin tithe to pay for a new crusade; the chronicler Giraldus Cambrensis suggested his death was a divine punishment for the tithe, imposed to raise money for an abortive crusade to recapture Jerusalem, which had fallen to Saladin in 1187.)
Henry's notorious liaison with Rosamund Clifford, the "fair Rosamund" of legend, probably began in 1165 during one of his Welsh campaigns and continued until her death in 1176. However, it was not until 1174, at around the time of his break with Eleanor, that Henry acknowledged Rosamund as his mistress. Almost simultaneously he began negotiating the annulment of his marriage and to marry Alys, daughter of King Louis VII of France and already betrothed to Henry's son Richard. Henry's affair with Alys continued for some years, and, unlike Rosamund Clifford, Alys allegedly gave birth to one of Henry's illegitimate children.
Henry also had a number of illegitimate children by various women, and Eleanor had several of those children reared in the royal nursery with her own children. Some remained members of the household into adulthood. Among them were William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, (whose mother was Ida, Countess of Norfolk); Geoffrey, Archbishop of York, (son of a woman named Ykenai); Morgan, Bishop of Durham; and Matilda, Abbess of Barking.
Henry II's attempt to divide his titles amongst his sons but keep the power associated with them provoked them into trying to take control of the lands assigned to them (see Revolt of 1173-1174), which amounted to treason, at least in Henry's eyes. Gerald of Wales reports that when King Henry gave the kiss of peace to his son Richard, he said softly, May the Lord never permit me to die until I have taken due vengeance upon you.
When Henry's legitimate sons rebelled against him, they often had the help of King Louis VII of France. Henry's third son, Richard the Lionheart (1157–1199), with the assistance of Philip II Augustus of France, attacked and defeated Henry on 4 July 1189.
Henry died 6 July 1189 at Chinon Castle (Chateau Chinon), France; and was buried near Chinon at Fontevraud Abbey, France. Henry's illegitimate son Geoffrey, Archbishop of York also stood by him the whole time, and alone among his sons attended on Henry's deathbed.
Eleanor of Acquitaine. (Anore d'Aquitaine). Countess Of Saintonge, Angoumois, Limousin, Auvergne, Bordeaux, Agen. Duchess of Aquitaine
Born in (1122)(1124-S5) at Chateau De Belin, Guinne, France; Daughter of GUILLAUME X and Alienor of Chastellerault(William VIII), Count of Poiters and Duke of Guienne and Aquitaine and Alienor (Eleanor) de CHASTELLERAULT.
She married (1) LOUIS VII Capet "The Younger" King of France on 22 Jul 1137 at Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France.
Their marriage was annulled in 1152.
She married (2) Henry II, King of England on 18 MAY (1151-S6 chronicles of Ralph de Diceto., i, 293 and S6 chronicles of Robert de Torigni)(1152-S4,S6 chronicles of S. Albini Andegav)(1153) in the Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France and at Whitsuntide, ENG
She died (1162-Burke)(in 1202)(26 JUN 1202)(31 MAR 1204-S3,S5)(1 APR 1204-S6) at Fontevraud Abbey, Maine-et-Loire, France; and was buried at the Fontevraud Abbey.
CHILDREN of Eleanor and Louis:
- MARIE (Mary) Capet de FRANCE. Born in 1145.
- ALIX (Alisa) Capet de FRANCE. Born in 1150.
CHILDREN of Henry II  and Eleanor of Aquitaine :
- William. Count of Poitiers. Born 17 AUG (1152)(1153-S5, S6), the eighth day after the feast of St. Laurence. He died in infancy, in 1156, and was buried at Reading at the feet of his great-grandfather Henry I.
- Henry PLANTAGENET. The Younger. King of England. Born 28 FEB 1155. Henry, Eleanor's fifteen-year-old son, was crowned joint king with his father in 1170, but he never actually ruled and is not included in the list of the monarchs of England by modern historians. He is sometimes called Henry III (Henricus tertius) by his contemporaries, and was also known as Henry the Young King to distinguish him from his nephew Henry III of England. He married Margaret of France. They had no children. Henry's attempts to wrest control of lands from Eleanor (and from her heir Richard) led to confrontations between Henry on the one side and his wife and legitimate sons on the other. He died on 11 JUN 1183 at Martel. She died 1198.
- Matilda. (Maud). Dutchess of Saxony. Born in JUN 1156. She married Henry, Duke of Saxony, called “The Lion” (der Löwe) in 1167 or 1168. He died in 1195. She died on 13 JUL 1189.
- Richard I, The Lionhearted. (Coeur de Lion). King of England. Born 8 SEP 1157. He married Berengaria of Navarre (1163-1230) on 12 MAY 1191. They had no children. Richard the Lionheart became King of England in 1189. He was followed by King John, the youngest son of Henry II, laying aside the claims of Geoffrey's children Arthur of Brittany and Eleanor. He died on 6 APR 1199, and was buried at Fontrevault.
- Geoffrey II. Duke (Count-S6) of Brittany (Bretagne). Born 23 SEP 1158. He married Constance of Brittany. They had a son, Arthur (1187-1203). Geoffrey died on 19 AUG 1186, when he was trampled to death by a horse. He was buried in Paris His wife Constance died in 1201.
- LEONORA of Acquitane. (Alainor)(Eleanor of England). Born on 13 OCT (1161-S5, S6)(1162). She married ALPHONSO VIII (S5, S6), King of Castille in 1169. He died in 1214. Their daughter Blanche of Castile married Louis VIII, King of France. Eleanor died in (1214-S5)(1215).
- MALE son, died young. Lewis (2002) would place an additional son either here or between Geoffrey and Eleanor, based on a statement of Ralph of Diceto that there were six sons, two of whom died young [R. Dic. ii, 17, 269]. Although Ralph is generally a trustworthy authority, this son is not confirmed by any other source.
- Joan (Joanna) PLANTAGENET. Born in OCT 1165. Of Normandy. She married (1) William II, “The Good”, King of Sicily on 13 FEB 1177. He died in 1189. She married (2) Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse in 1196. He died in 1222. She died in SEP 1199.
- JOHN Lackland, King of England. (John I). Born (24)(27-S6) DEC 1166-1167. [With regard to the birthdate of John, there have been disagreements as to the exact date and year, because of discrepancies in the sources. This was recently discussed in detail in Lewis (2002), where the conclusion was reached that 1166 was more likely than 1167. A statement in the early thirteenth century that John received that name because he was born about the time of the feast of St. John (27 December) would, if true, indicate that date as a plausible date of birth [Ex chronico anonymi canonici, ut videtur, Laudensis, RHF 13, 678-9]. However, that source only indicates a birth on about that date ("circa festum S. Johannis natus fuit"), not on it. -S6]. He became King of England in 1199. He married (1) Isabella of Gloucester in 1189. They divorced in 1199. He married (2) Isabella de Angoulême in 1200. He died on 19 OCT 1216 in Newark, and was buried at Worcester.
HENRY II is associated with:
Daughter of Walter FitzRichard Fitzpons, Baron of Clifford, and Margaret de TOENI. She died in 1176. Rosamond Clifford is falsely stated by many sources to be the mother of Geoffrey and William. Modern scholarship shows that neither of them was her son. Apparently they had no children together. [See DNB 4, 531-3 for a biographical sketch of Rosamond Clifford-S6].
HENRY II is associated with:
Ida, Countess of Norfolk, wife of Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk.
While it had been known for some time that the mother of William was a "countess" Ida, her identity was only recently proven. As one of two known contemporary English countesses named Ida, the wife of Roger Bigod had already been a prime candidate [see Reed (2002), which was going to press just as the crucial discovery was made]. Convincing proof of her identity as the wife of Roger Bigod was only recently discovered by Raymond W. Phair, who announced his discovery in the soc.genealogy.medieval newsgroup on 3 July 2002, and then published it in The American Genealogist [Phair (2002)], citing a list of prisoners after the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, in which Ralph Bigod was called a brother of the earl of Salisbury. The parentage of Ida remains unknown, but see Reed (2002) for the possibility that she might have been a daughter of Roger de Toeni and Ida of Hainault.
CHILDREN of Henry and Ida, Countess of Norfolk:
- [WILLIAM LONGSPEE]. [CHART A1]. Born about (1170-S6)(1176). Third Earl of Salisbury. He married Ela FITZPATRICK, heiress of Salisbury. He died in 1226 at Mansourah, Nile.
HENRY II is associated with:
CHILDREN of Henry and Ykenai:
- GEOFFREY PLANTAGENET. Born about (1152-S5)(1159). Bishop of Lincoln 1173-1182. Archbishop of York. Archbishop of York 1189-1212. He died in (1212-S6)(1226-S5).
- Walter Map. An enemy of Geoffrey's. He is the only known source for the name of Geoffrey's mother, and refers to Geoffrey's mother as a prostitute ( publica, meretrix), suggesting that Geoffrey was really a son of one of her other lovers. However, Geoffrey's status as a son of Henry does not seem to have been doubted by his contemporaries, and Walter's statement seems to be no more than malicious gossip.
HENRY II is associated with:
Born in 1150; daughter of LOUIS VII The Younger, King of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine. She married Theobald IV, Count of BLOIS about 1164. She died in 1198.
CHILDREN of Henry II and Alisa CAPET:
- Unnamed daughter
HENRY II is associated with:
Nesta (Nest-S6) BLOET.
(Daughter)(Wife-S6) of Sir Ralph BLOET. (Daughter of Iorwerth ab Owain, lord of Caerlon-S6).
CHILDREN of Henry II and Nesta BLOET:
- Morgan. Provost of Beverly 1201-1217. Roger de Hoveden [iv, 174] states that he was made provost by his brother archbishop Geoffrey in 1201, and that it was said ("ut dicebatur") that he was a son of king Henry. Bishop-elect of Durhyam in 1213. He would have been installed in that office if he had been willing to name Ralph Bloet as his father, but that he refused to disavow his relationship to the king. He died 1216-1217. Morgan was living in FEB-MAR 1216, when the pope granted him a dispensation [Cheney (1967), 177, #1067], and deceased by 6 November 1217, when Pope Honorius III wrote a letter to Archbishop Walter Gray of York regarding the goods of the recently deceased "M.", provost of Beverley [Reg. Gray 130].
OTHER CHILDREN OF HENRY II by unknown mistress:
- Matilda. Abbess of BARKING, ESSEX 1175-1198. Weir (1989), 63, lists Matilda as an illegitimate daughter of Henry II, but without documentation. Matilda should not be confused with her niece of the same name (daughter of king John), who was also an abbess of Barking (listed with a question mark by Weir [p. 72] under John's bastards, also without documentation). These two Matilda's have often been overlooked in listings of royal bastards. On 7 September 1998, John Carmi Parsons, in a list of some bastards of John overlooked in Given-Wislon & Curtis (1984), pointed out in the soc.genealogy.medieval newsgroup that VCH Essex 2, 120 and Monast. Angl. 1, 437, 441 named abbess Matilda, daughter of king John, and on 14 January 2003, Douglas Richardson pointed out in the same newsgroup that VCH Essex 2, 120 and Monast. Angl. 1, 437, 441 name Henry II's daughter abbess Matilda. VCH Essex 2, 120 cites Charter Rolls for 7-8 Richard II [1383-5] as the source for abbess Matilda, daughter of Henry, and that appears to be the earliest clearly dateable source for the present Matilda (the sources quoted in Monast. Angl. 1, 437, 441 both being later lists). However, Henry's daughter abbess Matilda is mentioned in a possibly earlier note of uncertain date, quoted in Monast. Angl. 1, 442, which was written sometime after the abbess Anne de Vere (fl. 1295), who is mentioned there. Although more contemporary documentation would be desirable, there does not appear to be any good reason to doubt these later sources regarding the existence of these two abbess Matildas.
CHILDREN PROBABLY FALSELY ATTRIBUTED TO HENRY II:
- Hugh of Wells (falsely attributed). Bishop of Lincoln. [Weir (1989), 63, with a question mark] There seems to be no good reason for including him among Henry's illegitimate children. See Hugh's biographical entry in DNB 10, 168, where Hugh is called a son of Edward of Wells and brother of bishop Josceline of Bath and Wells. He died in 1235.
- MALE son [Ben. Pet. 1, 160; Rog. Hov. iii, 99] (or daughter [Chr. Melsa i, 256, a much later source]) by Alice of France (controversial). King Richard I appears to have accused his father of having a son by Alice, but there is significant disagreement regarding the truth of that allegation. Richard certainly disliked his father enough to accuse him of such a thing, and clearly wanted to have some excuse for getting out of his promised marriage with Alice, but it is still possible that the story is true. Warren (1973), 611 argues against the story, pointing out the important fact that it has no support in the French chronicles. Gillingham (1999) 5, 82, 142 is inclined to accept it. Many are noncommittal (e.g., Kate Norgate, in her biographical sketch of Henry II in DNB 9, 461). If the child did in fact exist, then a son (as stated by contemporaries) would be more likely than a daughter. Weir (1989), 63, with no documentation, indicates four illegitimate children by Alice, one daughter and three of unknown gender.
- ? child (existence uncertain) by Alice of Porhoët, daughter of Eudon de Porhoët.
John of Salisbury stated that Eudon de Porhoët accused Henry of impregnating his daughter (ca. 1168), who had been in Henry's custody [Mater. Hist. Becket vi, 455-6]. Sheppard (1964) argued that this child may have been William Longespee, earl of Salisbury, before it was known that William's mother was named Ida. The child (if there was a live birth) does not appear to be the same as any of Henry's known illegitimate offspring.
- Richard (extremely doubtful), fl. 6 Richard I [1194-5]. Sheppard (1964) gives Henry a possible illegitimate son Richard, based on a Pipe Roll for 6 Richard I [1194-5] mentioning a "Richard the King's son" (as quoted by Sheppard). [Pipe Roll Society 14 (1891), 16] In addition to alternate possibilities mentioned by Sheppard, such as being a son of Richard I (in whose reign the record occurs) or some other king, it must be noted (as pointed out in postings to soc.genealogy.medieval by "History Writer" and "Nichol" on 16 Jan. 2003) that the actual reading is in abbreviated form Ric' fil' Reg' (with apostrophes for the more elaborate abbreviation symbols printed there) could be read as Richard son of Reginald, or that it might be a misreading of the Ric' fil' Rog' earlier in the same record. Thus, the evidence for such an illegitimate son is less than convincing.
- Peter (falsely attributed), dean-elect of York (1193) [Rog. Hov. iii, 221], archdeacon of the West Riding (1194) [Rog. Hov. iii, 273], archdeacon of Lincoln (1195) [Rog. Hov. iii, 287]. Roger of Hoveden refers to Peter as a brother of archbishop Geoffrey in each of the above three references. Since Roger, a contemporary, makes no mention of Peter being a son of Henry II, we can be reasonably certain that Peter was a brother of Geoffrey through his mother only. (In the case of Morgan already mentioned above, when Roger called him the brother of Geoffrey, he also mentioned the alleged connection to Henry II.) The suggestion that he was a bastard of Henry was advanced in Shepperd (1964), 365-6, n. 9 (with clear indications of uncertainty), and again in Shepperd (1965), 97 (referring to the previous article, but without the indication of doubt), but no good reasons were advanced for making Peter a son of Henry.
- [S1]. The Royal Ancestry of the Hamblin Family. Compiled for the Hamblin Family Association by George Merrill Roy, I. A. G. Received from Geraldine Tenney Nelson.
- [S2]. The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England. Ed. by Antonia Fraser. 1975. Alfred A. Knopf:New York.
- [S3]. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~mysouthernfamily/myff/d0029/g0000050.html
- [S4]. The official website of Alynia H. Rule. http://www.ancuairt.org/genealogy/matilda.htm
- [S5]. Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_II_of_England.
- [S6]. The Henry Project. The ancestors of king Henry II of England http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm. It quotes as sources:
- Ann. Dunelm. = Annales Dunelmenses, in Frank Barlow, ed., "Durham Annals and Documents of the Thirteenth Century", Surtees Society 155 (1945), 1-84.
- Ann. Monast. = Henry Richard Luard, ed., Annales Monastici, 5 vols. (Rolls Series 86, 1864). Contains the Annals of Bermondsey, Burton, Dunstable, Margan, Osney, Tewksbury, Waverly, Winchester, Worcester, and Wykes.
- Ann. Tewks. = Annales de Theoksberia (Annals of Tewksbury, 1066-1263), in Ann. Monast. (Rolls Series 86), i, 43-180.
- Ann. Wav. = Annales Monasterii de Waverleia (Annals of Waverly, 1-1291), in Ann. Monast. (Rolls Series 86), ii, 129-411.
- Ben. Pet. = William Stubbs, ed., Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbas (The Chronicle attributed to Benedict of Peterborough), 2 vols. (Rolls Series 49, 1867).
- Cheney (1967) = C. R. Cheney and Mary G. Cheney, The Letters of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) concerning England and Wales (Oxford, 1967).
- Chr. Melsa = Edward A. Bond, ed., Chronica Monasterii de Melsa (by Thomas de Burton, fl. 1399), 3 vols. (Rolls Series 43, 1866-8).
- Chr. Rob. Tor. = L. C. Bethemann, ed., Roberti de Monte Chronica (a continuation by Robert de Torigni of the chronicle of Sigebert de Gembloux), MGH SS 6, 476-535.
- Chr. S. Albini Andegav. = Chronicæ Sanct Albini Andegavensis, in Marchegay & Mabille, eds., Chroniques des Églises d'Anjou (Paris, 1869), 19-61.
- Chr. S. Serg. Andegav. = Chronica Sancti Sergii Andegavensis, in Marchegay & Mabille, eds., Chroniques des Églises d'Anjou (Paris, 1869), 129-152.
- CP = The Complete Peerage
- Crouch (1990) = David Crouch, William Marshall - Court, Career and Chivalry in the Angevin Empire 1147-1219 (London, New York, 1990). (Douglas Richardson, in a posting to soc.genealogy.medieval on 4 February 2003, pointed out that this source identified Morgan's mother.)
- DNB = Dictionary of National Biography.
- Gillingham (1999) = John Gillingham, Richard I (New Haven, 1999).
- Given-Wislon & Curtis (1984) = Chris Given-Wislon and Alice Curtis, The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (London, Boston, Melbourne, Henley, 1984).
- GND = Guillaume de Jumièges, Gesta Normannorum Ducum, as edited in Elisabeth van Houts, ed. & trans., The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, 2 vols., (Oxford, 1992). Citation is by book and chapter of Guillaume's work, with the volume and page number of the edition by van Houts in parentheses. Unless otherwise stated, references are to Guillaume's work, and not to later additions by such authors as Orderic Vitalis and Robert de Torigni.
- GND (Rob. Tor.) = Additions to GND by Robert de Torigni.
- Hist. Dunelm. = J. Raine, ed., "Historiæ Dunelmensis", Surtees Soc. 9 (1839).
- Lewis (2002) = Andrew W. Lewis, "The birth and childhood of King John: some revisions", in Bonnie Wheeler and John Carmi Parsons, eds., Eleanor of Aquitaine Lord and Lady (New York, 2002), 159-175.
- Mater. Hist. Becket. = James Craigie Robertson (vols. 1-7) and J. Brigstocke Sheppard (vol. 7), eds., "Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury", 7 vols. (London, 1875-85).
- Monast. Angl. = William Dugdale, ed. (new ed. by Caley, Ellis, Bandniel), Monasticon Anglicanum (London, 1817-30).
- Phair (2002) = Raymond W. Phair, "William Longespée, Ralph Bigod, and Countess Ida", TAG 77 (2002), 279-81.
- R. Dic. = William Stubbs, ed., Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundonensis Opera Historica - The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto Dean of London, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 68, London 1876).
- Reed (2002) = Paul C. Reed, "Countess Ida, mother of William Longesée, illegitimate son of Henry II", TAG 77 (2002), 137-49.
- Reg. Gray = James Raine, ed., "The Register, or Rolls, of Walter Gray, Lord Archbishop of York", Surtees Soc. 56 (1872).
- RHF = Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France.
- Rog. Hov. = William Stubbs, ed., Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, 5 vols. (Rolls Series 51, 1868). For an English translation, see Henry T. Riley, trans., The Annals of Roger de Hoveden, 2 vols. (London, 1853). Citations are from the edition of Stubbs.
- Rog. Wendover = Henry G. Hewlett, ed., "The Flowers of History of Roger de Wendover" (Flores Historiarum), Rolls Series 84 (London, 1886-9).
- Sheppard (1964) = Walter Lee Sheppard, "The Bastards of Henry II", The Genealogists' Magazine 14 (1964), 361-8. [I would like to thank Chris Phillips for providing me with a copy of this article.]
- Shepperd (1965) = Walter Lee Shepperd, "Royal bye-blows - the illegitimate children of the English kings from William I to Edward III", NEHGR 119 (1965), 94-102.
- VCH = Victoria County History of ...
- Walter Map = M. R. James, ed. & trans., Walter Map - De Nugis Curialum - Courtiers' Trifles (Oxford, 1983).
- Warren (1973) = W. L. Warren, Henry II (University of California Press, 1973).
- Weir (1989) = Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families - The Complete Genealogy (London, 1989).
- [S7]. Medieval Sourcebook: Angevin England. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1n.html#Angevin%20England
HOW ARE WE RELATED:
HENRY II, King of England, md Ida.
William I Longspee md Ela Fitzpatrick.
William II Longspee md Idonie de Camville.
Ela Longspee md James de Audley.
Hugh de Audley md Isolde de Mortimer.
Hugh de Audley md Margaret de Clare.
Margaret de Audley. md Ralph de Stafford.
Hugh Stafford. md Philippa de Beauchamp.
Edmund Stafford. md Anne of Gloucester.
Humphrey Stafford. md Anne Neville.
Margaret Stafford md Robert Dunham.
John Dunham md Elizabeth Bowett.
John Dunham II md Jean Thorland.
John Dunham III md Benedict Folgamsee.
Ralph Dunham. He married Elizabeth Wentworth.
Thomas Dunham. He married Jane Bromley.
John Dunham Sr.. He married Susanna Kenney/Keno.
John Dunham Jr.. He married Mary.
Mary Dunham. She married James Hamblin.
Elkenah Hamblin. He married Abigail Hamblin.
Sylvanus Hamblin. He married Dorcas Fish.
Barnabus Hamblin. He married Mary Bassett.
Isaiah Hamblin. He married Daphne Haynes.
Jacob Vernon Hamblin md Sarah Priscilla Leavitt.
Ella Ann Hamblin md Warren Moroni Tenney.
Clive Vernon Tenney md Minnie Williams
Mildred Ella Tenney = Glenn Russell Handy
Deborah Lee Handy and Rodney Allen Morris